Before and After: The Near East Side Transformation




Given the popularity of the Weinland Park Before and After, I am finally getting around to posting this one for the Near East Side, which is a combination of Olde Towne East and King-Lincoln. Like Weinland Park, the NES has seen its fair share of struggles over the years, but unlike Weinland Park, its revitalization has been decades in the making. It has seen steady house-to-house renovations since at least the 1980s, and is now at the point where the pace of larger scale redevelopment is picking up. There are currently at least a dozen infill projects in the works, with even more renovations.

North Ohio Avenue
Before: 2009 North Ohio Avenue looking north.

After: 2017

2017

These photos don’t represent all that big a change, but it shows some of the infrastructure improvements going on around the neighborhood. This picture is just south of the Poindexter Place development on North Ohio Avenue. The photos show the addition of a multi-use path, new sidewalks and pavement. Bike lanes, which aren’t shown in the Google image, were also striped.

Poindexter Village
Before: 2009 North Ohio and Hawthorne, looking east.

After: 2017

Poindexter Village was the first large-scale public housing complex in Columbus, built back in the 1940s. All but 2 of the original buildings were torn down to make room for a redevelopment, called Poindexter Place. The last 2 buildings will become a museum. The change from 2009 to 2017 is drastic.

Before: 2009 Champion and Mt. Vernon, looking southeast.

2009

After: 2017

Before: 2011 Hawthorne Avenue looking north.

After: 2017

Before: 2009 Oak and 18th looking northwest

After: 2017

An example of some of the businesses that have moved into the neighborhood.

Before: 2015 Bryden and Garfield, looking northwest.

After: 2017

This is an example of the most common type of development within the Near East Side- the small-scale renovation.

Before: 2009 Long and 17th, looking southeast.

After: 2017

These photos show a mix of private and public development.

Before and After: Weinland Park’s Ongoing Revitalization




Weinland Park has long been a downtrodden, middle-class neighborhood in one of the best locations in the city, situated directly between the Short North/Italian Village and OSU’s Campus area. High crime, poverty and other issues have plagued the neighborhood for decades, but in recent years, as development has converged from the north and south into the neighborhood, that is steadily changing. The before and after photos below show just some of these changes.

Indianola and East 8th Avenue, looking northeast
Before: 2011

After: 2017

East 8th Avenue, looking east
Before: 2011

After: 2016

Summit Street, looking west
Before: 2011

After: 2017

North 6th Street, looking south
Before: 2009

After: 2015

North Grant Avenue, looking north
Before: 2009

After: 2015

Courtland Avenue, looking south
Before: 2007

After: 2017

Neighborhood Profile #2: King-Lincoln

This week is Demographics week. First up, ACD’s second neighborhood profile, featuring the King-Lincoln District, Columbus’ historically African American cultural heart.

I was going to write a history for the area, but this video tells it better than I ever could.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G_3L_gvqZnU

History aside, what I can do is provide a more detailed demographic picture from the past, present and possible future of the neighborhood.

Population

1930: 17,970
1940: 18,282
1950: 20,527
1960: 17,746
1970: 11,627
1980: 9,291
1990: 8,456
2000: 8,025
2010: 6,439

Population peaked around 1950, but during the 1950s began its long-term decline. Some might say this was a product of White Flight, but in this case, the neighborhood was already almost entirely non-White. The White Flight movement was more than just about racial demographic changes in neighborhoods, it was a factor of urban neglect. Just like in the rest of urban Columbus, King-Lincoln lost its urban appeal due to infrastructure deterioration, lack of city-focused leadership, decline of schools and increasing crime rates (among other things). One of the biggest blows to the area, just like what occurred with Olde Towne East to its south, was the construction of I-71 in the early 1960s. The highway cut the neighborhood off from Downtown, demolished hundreds of historic buildings, and allowed more people to effectively leave the neighborhood altogether. This is a good reason why the population dropped by almost 35% between 1960 and 1970.

The population loss rate had been slowing down each decade through 2000. During the 2000s, the city cleared out Poindexter Village, one of Columbus’ first public-housing projects and home to several hundred residents. This accounted for a very large chunk of the loss that occurred from 2000-2010 and why the loss increased during that time. The city is now tearing the complex down with plans for mixed-use development on the site. If not for this action by the city, it’s very likely that King-Lincoln would’ve had it’s lowest total population loss since the decline began in the 1950s.

Demographics
White
1990: 6.1%
2000: 6.2%
2010: 9.6%
Black
1990: 90.7%
2000: 87.7%
2010: 84.0%
Asian
1990: 2.4%
2000: 0.7%
2010: 0.5%
Hispanic
1990: 0.6%
2000: 1.1%
2010: 2.2%
Other
1990: 0.9%
2000: 5.4%
2010: 5.9%

% Change By Demographic for Each Decade
1990-2000
White: -3.7%
Black: -8.2%
Asian: -71.6%
Hispanic: +63.0%
Other: +501.4%
2000-2010
White: +24.5%
Black: -23.1%
Asian: -42.1%
Hispanic: +60.2%
Other: -11.8%

The demographics for the last 30 years show Hispanic and White populations are becoming an ever larger chunk of the neighborhood, while Asians have declined significantly. The African American population is still, by far, the largest demographic, but it too is on a long-term decline. This suggests a gradual gentrification of the neighborhood.

And what of the future of the area? Significant revitalization news has been coming out in recent months. As mentioned above, the 36-building Poindexter Village, long a hot spot for crime and concentrated poverty, is currently in the process of being torn down. The site will be replaced with residential, retail, office and arts space over time. A larger area plan was recently announced here: http://www.columbusunderground.com/pact-plans-165-million-strategic-redevelopment-for-near-east-side . The $165 million plan will focus on King-Lincoln’s main thoroughfares: East Long Street, Mount Vernon Avenue and Taylor Avenue. Increasing density with mixed-use development and revitalizing the commercial corridors is a big part of the plan, as well as infrastructure and green space improvement. Smaller developments include Homeports housing renovations http://www.columbusunderground.com/homeport-looks-to-increase-activity-on-long-street-in-king-lincoln-district-bw1, which have been very successful so far.

So while King-Lincoln has seen better days, the neighborhood is currently in transition. 5-10 years from now, the neighborhood should be radically changed, hopefully for the better. Its proximity to Downtown and other central neighborhoods give it a great advantage as the city has become fairly popular again.

Neighborhood Profile #1- Olde Towne East


Olde Towne East, as the name implies, is one of Columbus’ oldest neighborhoods. It began as a series of farms and modest homes, but began to consolidate as a neighborhood when the National Road (now Broad Street) reached Columbus in 1833. This new road acted much like later highways would, allowing those with the means to live a bit further out from the hustle can bustle of Downtown Columbus, which during the 1800s was rapidly growing. So essentially, Olde Towne became one of Columbus’ first suburbs. These early suburbanites tended to be the wealthy elite of Columbus, and they built large, extravagant homes for the period, many of which still exist today.

As the city and neighborhood prospered, residents began to clamor for alternative modes of transit. In 1863, Columbus began service of its first horse-drawn streetcar with a route to Olde Towne East along Broad Street. This allowed for further growth of the area and made it easier for those of more modest means to take part in building the area, and the population continued to grow. This prompted the city to annext Olde Towne in 1870.

By the 1880s, transportation improved again when trolley tracks were laid. The streetcar barn that served the trollies still exists, although currently in desperate need of maintenance. Further development prompted much of the area to be converted to a gridded, residential area, and the affluent continued to flock to the area to build their dream homes. It is likely that the neighborhood reached its peak sometime between 1890-1915, before new suburban areas, such as Bexley, began to pull the rich from Olde Towne.

From the 1920s through 1940s, Olde Towne East transitioned from a neighborhood of the rich to a middle class enclave, and much of its former luster began to slowly disappear. Old mansions were gutted and turned into apartments and nursing homes, while others slowly rotted until they were demolished. This trend was accelerated in the 1950s, as a new highway system was being constructed, and the urban core of Columbus gradually declined due to pollution, crime and worsening schools. This suburban flight, better known as the “White Flight” movement, left Olde Towne wholly transformed. Over time it became a neighborhood dominated by low income families mostly of African American descent. African Americans had not been able to take advantage of the surburban exodus, and instead had simply replaced those who had already left.

What happened in Olde Towne was happening in many urban neighborhoods across the city, exacerbated by the “urban renewal” movement. Urban Renewal is now considered one of the absolute worst disasters to ever befall cities. Leaders believed at the time that the best way to fight urban blight was to basically bulldoze everything in sight. Because the automobile had become such a dominant force, it was believed that the best way to bring people back to the city was to provide large amounts of parking vs a smaller amount of buildings. The theory was that if it was easy to drive and park Downtown, those businesses that were left would be able to tap into all those customers. Beyond that, there was a lack of appreciation for anything of real historical value or age. Old buildings, more often than not, were just considered blight that needed to be removed, far too cost inefficient to maintain. Therefore, if there was more parking for the increasing suburban population along with less blight, urban areas would again become revitalized. It was a ridiculous theory and basically accomplished the exact opposite.

The worst blow, however, was the highway system. Olde Towne East was connected to Downtown with dense, urban development. I-71 changed that. It carved a path through the heart of the neighborhood, destroying hundreds of historical homes and permanently severing the two areas with a highway canyon. All highways did was allow more and more people to escape to the far suburbs, and by the 1970s, Olde Towne East, along with most other urban neighborhoods, was in freefall decline.

The 1980s began to provide a ray of hope. The principles of urban renewal were rapidly becoming obsolete, if not shunned. The damage the philosophy had caused was obvious everywhere one looked in the urban core. But while Olde Towne had lost so much and was in bad shape, some people saw potential. Many of the original mansions had survived, though in extreme disrepair. Real estate had become very cheap in the neighborhood, and house flipping was beginning to take off. Renovations began to take place and the very slow process of turning the neighborhood around began. It was not without controversy.

By the 1990s, gentrification was well underway in Olde Towne East, but not everyone was thrilled. Many in the African American community saw these new urbanists as a threat. Why? Because the inevitable result of fixing up a neighborhood is higher rents, higher mortgages and higher taxes. These lower-income residents, who had been there for decades, saw this revitalization as their eventual push out of Olde Towne East altogether. This controversy became the subject of a 1990s documentary called Flag Wars. The documentary centered on the gay community, in particular, being a force of revitalization, and the conflict it created with African American residents who felt they were being bullied to leave.

The 2000s were a slow time for Olde Towne East. Double recessions hit house flippers and developers hard, and the housing market overall crashed. Revitalization slowed and it looked for awhile that perhaps the process had stagnated. However, within the last few years, the city, along with private and public investment, such as with Ohio State, has pledged millions of dollars to fix up homes and infrastructure in and around Olde Towne even as small-scale renovations have gradually ticked up once more. These new partnerships signal a new era for Olde Towne and other urban neighborhoods that we are once again serious about the urban environment. In the years to come, Olde Town’s incredible architecture and history will become an increasingly important selling point to a society that, at least in the past 5 years, has taken a second look at urban living and not found it to be all that scary anymore. It may take time to rebuild infrastructure and population, but the seeds are there for a true rebirth of one of Columbus’ oldest and best neighborhooods.

Olde Towne East Historical Population and Demographics

Population
2010: 4,950
2000: 5,572
1990: 7,090
1980: 7,941
1970: 12,463
1960: 17,860
1950: 16,823
1940: 14,627

% of Population by Race
White
2010: 32.0%
2000: 20.2%
1990: 21.6%
1980: 22.9%
1970: 23.7%
1960: 62.7%
1950: 90.3%
1940: 93.7%
Black
2010: 62.1%
2000: 74.8%
1990: 75.9%
1980: 75.9%
1970: 75.3%
1960: 37.3%
1950: 9.7%
1940: 6.3%
Hispanic*
2010: 2.1%
2000: 1.1%
1990: 0.6%
1980: 0.2%
1970: 1.0%
Asian**
2010: 0.6%
2000: 1.1%
1990: 0.9%
1980: 1.0%

*Hispanics were not counted separatrely until the 1970 Census.
**Asians were not counted separately until the 1980 Census.
***Prior to 1970, many were largely counted as either White or Black. This partially explains the rapid changes from 1960-1970 in demographics, but is not the entire story. This was also the same period that Interstate 71 was constructed through the neighborhood (early 1960s). Almost 5,000 residents were forced to relocate or simply left the area between 1960 and 1970 and completely reversed the racial makeup of the neighborhood.