Cool Link of the Day: Spatial Mismatch in Local Employment




The Urban Institute released a study on San Francisco and Columbus metro areas and how the number of listed jobs match the number of job seekers. Take a look at it with the link here: Too Far From Jobs

Where Columbus’ Foreign-Born Population Originates





Columbus has a growing and diversifying foreign-born population these days. As of 2017, they made up 12% of the city’s population, the highest in more than 100 years. I’ve looked at such numbers before, but I wanted to update for the most recent available numbers.

Top 25 Origin Nations for the Existing Foreign-Born Population
2010—————————————2017
1. Mexico: 13620———————1. Mexico: 12214
2. India: 7790————————–2. India: 10095
3. Somalia: 6799———————3. Somalia: 8143
4. China: 3881————————-4. China: 6475
5. Ghana: 2381————————5. Ghana: 5229
6. Korea: 2246————————-6. Ethiopia: 2428
7. El Salvador: 1542—————–7. Kenya: 2131
8. Japan: 1518————————8. El Salvador: 2057
9. Vietnam: 1496———————-9. Vietnam: 1992
10. Ethiopia: 1457——————-10. Nepal: 1914
11. Kenya: 1391———————-11. Korea: 1564
12. Sierra Leone: 1222————-12. Iraq: 1407
13. Haiti: 1091————————13. Sierra Leone: 1399
14. Canada: 1086——————–14. Dominican Republic: 1292
15. Philippines: 1054—————-15. Japan: 1292
16. Germany: 1017——————-16. Cambodia: 1165
17. United Kingdom: 970———–17. Russia: 1142
18. Cambodia: 962——————-18. Philippines: 1135
19. Taiwan: 940———————–19. Morocco: 1134
20. Liberia: 852———————–20. Nigeria: 1029
21. Guatemala: 832——————21. Cameroon: 1018
22. Dominican Republic: 804——22. Taiwan: 982
23. Russia: 800———————–23. United Kingdom: 951
24. Ukraine: 716———————-24. Ukraine: 868
25. Nigeria: 701———————–25. Pakistan: 861

Since 2010, there has been somewhat of a shift away from Europe and Latin America, and more and more into Asia and Africa.

Here were the 10 biggest gainers and losers 2010-2017
Gainers————————————-Losers
1. Ghana: 2848———————-1. Mexico: -1406
2. China: 2594———————–2. Korea: -682
3. India: 2105————————3. Haiti: -647
4. Nepal: 1766———————–4. Germany: -280
5. Somalia: 1344——————–5. Liberia: -268
6. Iraq: 1108————————–6. Belarus: -228
7. Ethiopia: 971———————-7. Canada: -247
8. Morocco: 873———————8. Japan: -226
9. Cameroon: 819——————9. Bosnia/Herzegovina: -215
10. Kenya: 740———————-10. Guatemala: -210

Keep in mind that these are just estimates and can therefore have wide margins of error.

Columbus’ Christmas Day Climatology




*Find more December records in the December Weather page.

Normals 1981-2010
High: 38
Low: 25
Mean: 31.5
Precipitation: 0.10″
Snowfall: 0.2″

1878-2017 Averages
High: 36
Low: 24
Mean: 30
Precipitation: 0.11″
Snowfall: 0.1″

Top 10 Coldest Highs
1. 1983: 1
2. 1878: 10
3. 1924: 11
4. 1980: 15
5. 1902: 16
6. 1985: 17
7. 1884, 2000: 19
8. 1899, 1906, 1914:20
9. 1950, 1968: 22
10. 1935, 1969, 2001: 23

Top 10 Coldest Lows
1. 1983: -12
2. 1980: -5
3. 1935: -4
4. 1924: -3
5. 1878: -2
6. 2004: -1
7. 1985: 1
8. 2000: 2
9. 1884: 4
10. 1914, 1999: 7

Top 10 Warmest Highs
1. 1893: 64
2. 1982: 63
3. 1932, 1940: 62
4. 1889: 60
5. 1964: 58
6. 1895, 1955: 57
7. 1891: 55
8. 1936, 2015: 53
9. 1888, 1915, 1987: 52
10. 1965, 1973: 51

Top 10 Warmest Lows
1. 1889, 1982: 55
2. 1895: 52
3. 1893: 49
4. 1891: 45
5. 2015: 43
6. 1932, 1940: 40
7. 1888, 1964, 1973: 39
8. 1987: 38
9. 1922, 1941, 2009, 2016: 37
10. 1936, 1972: 36

Number of Days with the High Temperature
Less than 10: 1
10-19: 7
20-29: 25
30-39: 54
40-49: 36
50-59: 12
60 or Higher: 5

Number of Days with the Low Temperature
Less than 0: 6
0-9: 7
10-19: 36
20-29: 46
30-39: 37
40-49: 5
50 or Higher: 3

Top 10 Wettest
1. 2009: 0.79″
2. 1944: 0.77″
3. 1926: 0.69″
4. 1951: 0.58″
5. 2006: 0.57″
6. 1945: 0.54″
7. 1957: 0.52″
8. 1987, 2005: 0.51″
9. 1915: 0.48″
10. 1909: 0.47″

Number of Days with Precipitation
0.00″: 44
Trace: 27
0.01″-0.24″: 54
0.25″-0.49″: 6
0.50″-0.74″: 7
0.75″-0.99″: 2
1.00″ or More: 0

Top 10 Snowiest
1. 1890: 7.0″
2. 1909: 5.7″
3. 1950: 3.0″
4. 1917: 2.5″
5. 1969: 2.3″
6. 1884: 2.2″
7. 1976: 1.9″
8. 1880: 1.8″
9. 1935: 1.3″
10. 1944: 1.2″

Top 5 with the Most Snow on the Ground (Since 1947)
1. 1960: 9″
2. 1961, 1963, 1989, 1995: 4″
3. 1969, 1980, 2004: 3″
4. 1950, 2000: 2″
5. 1951, 1956, 1962, 1990, 1992, 1993, 2010, 2017: 1″

Number of Days with Snowfall
0.0″: 73
Trace: 23
0.1″-0.4″: 19
0.5″-0.9″: 9
1″-2.9″: 7
3″ or More: 3

For more general Columbus weather records, go here: Columbus All-Time Weather




Worst Winters of All Time?




Historically, winter in Central Ohio has been a mixed bag. Some years it seems that winter never really arrives, while others never seem to end. The 2010s have been a perfect example, with some years being some of the coldest and snowiest on record, while others were some of the warmest and least snowiest.
The last few winters haven’t been particularly harsh, but where do they rank historically? To find out, I came up with a ranking system for meteorological winter only- December 1st through February 28th. Here was the criteria:

Temperature: 1 point added for each occurrence-
– # of 32 or Below Highs
– # of 32 or Below Lows
– # of 0 or Below Highs
– # of 0 or Below Lows
And 1 point removed for each occurrence-
– # of 60 or Above Highs
– # of 50 or Above Lows

Precipitation: 1 point added for each occurrence-
– # of Days with Measurable Snowfall
– # of 1″+ Snow Days
– # of 2.5″+ Snow Days
– # of 5″+ Snow Days
– # of 10″+ Snow Days
– # of Measurable Precipitation Days overall

I then added the temperature and precipitation points together to come up with a ranking for how miserable each winter really was.

Here are the 30 worst winters of all time and their total points.

1. 1976-1977: 240
2. 1977-1978: 238
3. 1969-1970: 230
4. 2002-2003: 228
5. 1978-1979: 226
6. 1880-1881: 225
7. 1917-1918: 223
8. 1935-1936: 220
9. 2013-2014: 219
10. 1892-1893, 1962-1963: 218
11. 1909-1910: 217
12. 1995-1996, 2009-2010: 208
13. 2010-2011: 207
14. 1903-1904: 204
15. 1981-1982: 202
16. 1911-1912, 1963-1964: 197
17. 1886-1887, 1919-1920: 196
18. 1904-1905: 195
19. 1984-1985: 194
20. 1916-1917: 193
21. 1894-1895: 191
22. 1883-1884: 189
23. 2000-2001: 188
24. 1947-1948, 1961-1962: 187
25. 1993-1994: 186
26. 1884-1885, 1939-1940: 185
27. 1983-1984, 1987-1988: 183
28. 1902-1903, 2014-2015: 182
29. 1954-1955: 180
30. 1878-1879, 1882-1883, 1960-1961, 1985-1986, 2003-2004, 2008-2009: 179

Do any of these surprise you? Both 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 are in the top 30 worst, but only 2013-2014 is in the top 10. In fact, other recent winters like 2000-2001, 2002-2003, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 are all ranked worse than that. There have been a surprising number of recent winters in the top 30, however. There have been 8 total since 2000. No other similar time frame has produced as many.

And here are the 30 best winters (if you like warm, snowless, dry winters, that is).

1. 1931-1932: 74
2. 1889-1890: 75
3. 1879-1880: 86
4. 1997-1998: 102
5. 2016-2017: 107
6. 1881-1882, 1943-1944: 111
7. 2001-2002: 112
8. 1996-1997: 115
9. 1948-1949, 1953-1954: 118
10. 1941-1942, 1982-1983: 120
11. 1918-1919: 122
12. 1936-1937: 123
13. 1932-1933, 1991-1992: 124
14. 1930-1931, 2015-2016: 125
15. 1905-1906, 1972-1973: 126
16. 1949-1950: 128
17. 1897-1898, 1986-1987: 129
18. 2011-2012: 130
19. 1938-1939: 131
20. 1937-1938: 134
21. 1908-1909, 1920-1921, 2005-2006: 135
22. 1924-1925: 137
23. 1896-1897: 138
24. 1927-1928, 1929-1930, 1940-1941, 1990-1991: 139
25. 1952-1953: 140
26. 1921-1922, 1945-1946, 1998-1999: 141
27. 1988-1989: 143
28. 1891-1892: 144
29. 1946-1947, 1971-1972: 145
30. 1912-1913, 1934-1935: 147

Look how many of the warmest/least snowy occurred between 1920 and 1945. Historically, this period had the fewest number of cold and/or snowy winters on record of any such 25-year period.

And what about winter 2018-2019? Well, that remains to be seen. However, the developing weak El Nino, combined with other Pacific and global indices suggests that it will be both cold and snowy. It’s already getting off to an early start with November 2018 potentially ending up as a top 10 or 15 coldest on record. We’ll have to see if this continues into December and beyond, but such early cold is often associated with harsher winters, though there are certainly exceptions to that.

To see lots of other winter statistics, check out the All-Time Weather page.

Cool Link of the Day: Student Debt Mapped




https://mappingstudentdebt.org/#/map-1-an-introduction

This link shows the amount of student debt by zip code for the entire country. Scroll down to any city to find out student debt delinquency rates, incomes and loan balances.